Comparative study between formative assessment and flipped classroom lectures in a drug information course
To compare the short- and long-term retention of knowledge between formative assessment (FA) and flipped classroom (FC) lectures in a drug information course for pharmacy students in Japan. FA lectures were conducted as traditional in-person lectures, and a paper-based reflection quiz was administered at the end of each lecture for approximately ten minutes as a formative assessment. In contrast, FC lectures required students to watch videos before attending lectures, and a multiple-choice test was administered to the students in the class. Regarding FC lectures with incentives, students were awarded one point per topic to their final exam scores if they watched prerequisite videos as well as answered pre-quizzes before attending class.
In comparison with the FC for short-term retention, FA and the FC with incentives were effective teaching methods; a similar effect was not observed for long-term retention. Lecture preparation was key to obtaining a successful outcome for the FC. Additionally, the study clarified that the variances of the FC with incentives were significantly smaller than those of other methods, which suggests that incentives can effectively work to fully understand the overall concept of the drug information course for short-term retention. The FA and FC with incentives were effective teaching methods for short-term retention in comparison with FC.
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