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Study to explore the significance of saliva as a diagnostic tool to detect Micro RNA in oral potentially malignant disorders


T.N.Uma Maheshwari , M.S.Niveedhitha

Abstract

Oral carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process and there is a need for discovery of novel biomarkers such as salivary microRNA (miRNA) for early diagnosis as 16–62% of OSCC develops from oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Oral tissues are immersed in saliva; hence, saliva is a non-invasive reliable indicator for early malignant changes in oral epithelial precursor lesions. The role of miRNA as signatures of carcinogenesis though well established in vitro and in vivo, there are no studies evaluating the expression of salivary miRNA in Indian population. This study is the forerunner to study more genomic novel markers in saliva proving the diagnostic potential of saliva miRNA in early diagnosis of malignancy. The study mainly aims in evaluating whether saliva being a non-invasive diagnostic fluid can be used as a reliable source to study miRNA expression mainly miRNA 21 and miRNA 31 as a biomarker to detect early dysplastic changes inOPMDs. The study had proved that miRNA 21 and 31 are definitely expressed in both control and OPMDs in saliva, and there is significant downregulation of gene expression seen in OPMDs with average fold expression of miRNA 21 calculated as 58.48 (P = 0.016) and average fold expression of miRNA 31 as 67.18 (P = 0.014).



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