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Antiviral Potential of Aqueous Extracts of Some Parts of Momordica balsamina Plant against Newcastle Disease Virus


Chollom S.C. , Olawuyi A.K. , Danjuma L.D. , Nanbol L.D. , Makinde I.O. , Hashimu G.A. , Alesa M.U. , Esilonu J.T. , Ogundeji E.B. , Kwatjel J.S.

Abstract

Investigation was made on the fruit pulp and leaf extracts of Momordica balsamina plant to determine their antiviral potential against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) using chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell lines. Three experimental sets were assembled: virus and extract were made to react before infection of cell line; virus and cell were made to react before addition of extract and cell and extract made to react before infection with virus. Cytotoxicity test showed that both extracts are safe at concentrations lower than 30mg/ml. Phytochemistry of the two extracts revealed the presence of novel antiviral agents just as elemental studies showed the presence of important elements. Antiviral assay showed inhibition of the virus from 10mg/ml concentration of fruit pulp extract and 20mg/ml concentration of leaf extract upwards. With both extracts, the experimental sets that pretreated the virus with the extract and cell with extract prior to infection of cells showed greater sensitivity relative to the one that allowed the virus to infect the cell before introduction of the plant extract. It suggests that the plant has the ability to prevent attachment of the virus to host cells hence affirming its antiviral potential against the virus.



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