Transfersome: a vesicular drug delivery with enhanced permeation
Transdermal drug delivery offers numerous advantages in comparison to conventional delivery methods. However, the stratum corneum as the first layer has been the limiting barrier to some drugs so that no compilation permeable is applied to the skin. Permeation enhancers are now a solution for limitation in transdermal delivery systems, which are available as chemical or physically permeation enhancers. But sometimes these systems still have skin safety issues. Vesicle is a system that delivers hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and macromolecular drugs as well as targeted delivery to organs. Transfersome is an elastic vesicle with the capability of deforming its molecule while penetrating into the skin, which is effective in increasing the penetration of drugs with high and low molecular weights. Transfersomes are formed from phospholipids and surfactants known as edge activators. The flexibility of transfersome is affected by the ratio of surfactant and phospholipid. Transfersome has been prepared by various methods including high-pressure homogenization, reverse-phase evaporation, thin-film dispersion, sonication/vortex, and ethanol injection. Evaluation of transfersome included physical and chemical characterization, as well as permeation evaluation in both ex vivo and in vitro studies. In conclusion: Vesicular transfersome is a system that offers an increased effect of drug permeation into the skin with deforming capabilities due to the presence of edge activators. The surfactant and phospholipid ratio determines the ability of the system in enhancing drug permeation.
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