The active site of human Tyrosinase-related Protein: can it be inhibited by plants?
Tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related proteins (TYRPs) play an important role in melanogenesis. TYRPs present in the membrane of melanosome, are known to function in the activation and stabilization of tyrosinase, melanosome synthesis, increase eumelanin/pheomelanin ratio, and in reducing oxidative stress due to its peroxidase effect. Besides, the tyrosinase enzyme is the main enzyme that catalyzes the rate of melanin synthesis, whereas the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent way of developing the inhibitors of melanogenesis. The active site of the tyrosinase-like subdomain of TYRP-1 contains two zinc ions, while that of tyrosinase contains two copper ions. This article focuses on the role of an isoform of TYRP, namely TYRP-1, in melanogenesis, the character of its active site, and the mechanism of action of plant-based lightening agents.
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