Mixed exposure to As, Mn, and Pb and dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum
Mixed exposure to arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) occur frequently in the general population; however, there are few studies on the neurotoxic effects, including those on dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum. This study investigated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression in the mouse striatum after exposure to As, Mn, and Pb. Mixed exposure to these metals through drinking water for 4 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of TH and VMAT2 in the striatum of mouse, while the DAT expression was not significantly changed. These results suggest that the expression of TH and VMAT2 plays an important role in neurotoxicity caused by mixed exposure to As, Mn, and Pb. The results also indicate that synergy may occur with combined exposure to heavy metals such as As, Mn, and Pb, and is more likely to occur even when exposure of heavy metals is low.
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