Effort-induced bronchospasm in athletes: modern views on pathogenesis and diagnosis in high-school teenagers
Effort-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a common bronchial asthma manifestation in response to physical activity and occurs in the absolute majority of this patient group. It is widespread among apparently healthy teenagers intensively engaged in sports, which is due to several factors including climate patterns, training conditions, and high physical activity intensity.
The special relevance of BFN for adolescents who are actively engaged in sports is due to the high prevalence. So, if the frequency of BFN in the general population of persons of this age group does not exceed 5-10%, then among adolescents intensively and regularly engaged in sports, this indicator reaches 25%. Clinical manifestations of BFN are associated with impaired respiratory function, which develops in response to increased physical activity.
In BPH, the decrease in external respiratory function is based on a rapidly developing transient narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory tract, provoked by physical exertion. With BFN, there is a more pronounced decrease in FEV1, which reaches 10-15% of the initial value. This condition is accompanied by a violation of the external respiratory function during the training process and leads to a deterioration in sports performance, and also provokes the development and progression of the respiratory system diseases. Currently, there is no definitive understanding of all pathogenetic aspects of BFN. The methods used for the diagnosis of BFN do not always allow to identify this condition with high confidence. The paper presents a literature review about various aspects of EIB in high-school teenagers active in sports.
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