Comparative study of traditional face-to-face teaching, audience response system, and a flipped classroom plus audience response
The audience response system (AUD) and flipped classroom (FLP) strategies have been applied globally in higher education. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies comparing AUD and AUD with FLP(FLP+AUD). This study examined whether FLP+AUD might be the most effective teaching method for pharmaceutical students compared with the traditional face-to-face (TRA) and AUD lecture styles. We recruited second-year (P2) university students in Japan from 2017 to 2019 and conducted TRA, AUD, and FLP+AUD studies in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. We then compared the exam scores for the summative evaluations for the following numbers of participants: 49 in 2017, 78 in 2018, and 90 in 2019. The academic backgrounds of students were similar at the end of their freshman year, except for their GPA. The median pharmacology exam scores following the TRA, AUD and FLP+AUD lectures were 73.3%, 90.0%, and 93.3%, respectively. An analysis of covariance using GPA revealed that AUD and FLP+AUD significantly improved exam outcomes compared to TRA (p < 0.001). However, FLP+AUD did not significantly improve scores compared to AUD alone (p = 0.487). Post hoc power analysis showed that the power of our study was 0.916, indicating that the Type II error was less than 0.1. In conclusion, active learning methods, including AUD and FLP+AUD, were significantly more effective than TRA methods, and both AUD and FLP+AUD had the same learning outcomes for short-term knowledge retention.
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