Antifungal activities of Medinilla speciosa Blume fruit extracts against Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum
Some antifungal drugs that are used to treat candidiasis and dermatomycosis can change the life cycle and growth patterns of fungi, leading to resistance. To avoid this, alternative medicines such as medicinal plants are needed. Medinilla speciosa Blume is a plant originating from Mount Muria, Kudus, Central Java, Indonesia, which has been used by the community to treat diarrhea, inflammation, and bacterial infections, but there is no information about its antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of M. speciosa Blume fruit extracts against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28188. This research was performed by plant determination and sample preparation, sample extraction by gradually maceration, phytochemicals screening, TLC profile assay, antifungal activity test, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) determination, and comparative antifungal activity study against Ketoconazole. The results showed that all of the extracts indicated no antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231, but methanol extract showed the strongest activity against T. rubrum ATCC 28188, followed by ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts. MIC and MFC of methanol extract against T. rubrum ATCC 28188 were 391 and 781 ppm, respectively. The comparative antifungal activity value of methanol extract against Ketoconazole was 4621.68 : 1. With regard to the results of phytochemical screening and TLC profile, the antifungal activity of methanol extract may be due to the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, quinones, and saponins.
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