A comprehensive approach to faculty members’ promotion policies
Background: Promotion of human resources of organizations is one of the aspects of human resource management which is important and adopting appropriate policies in this area could have a significant impact on the progression of the organization. Promotion system of faculty members in higher education institutions plays a major role in directing their scientific activities and as one of the most important components of performance improvement and retention of faculty members is an essential part in the academic success of faculty members and universities, therefore has a special position in higher education policymaking. Considering the importance of faculty members' promotion system, we decided to conduct a study in this area. Methods: This study was conducted using the methodology of critical review. Related terminology was selected and extensive and structured search of texts were conducted.280 texts and articles were achieved. Then according to purposive sampling screening of texts was conducted in three stages: (A) Initial or title screening, (B) Secondary screening, (C) Tertiary screening. 45 articles were analyzed. Results: Universities review the competencies and merits of faculty members and interfere this merit-based evaluation in faculty members' promotion. Faculty members' activities are evaluated in the areas of education, research and administrative services by promotion committees. Weighting these areas is different according to universities and departments but educational activities are one of the most important and essential areas in faculty members' promotion. There is direct connection between the level of promotion and the extent of promotion candidates' educational excellence at all levels of promotion. This educational excellence and reputation of faculty member should be at the college level at the Assistant professor rank, at the national and regional level at the associate professor rank, and at the national and international level at the professorship rank. Strengthen students' independent thinking and reasoning is outstanding advantages of educational criteria. In research area in addition to the number of articles, articles quality and number of citation is important. Many universities continue the promotion process after professor rank. Some universities apply the policy granting promotion to faculty members only according to excellence in teaching or research.
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