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The development of professional competence of students in management training

 

Marina Georgiyevna Sergeeva1*, Sergey Evgenievich Shishov2, Valentina Alekseevna Kalnei2, Galina Nikolayevna Yulina2, Irina Veniaminovna Polozhentseva2

1 Research Institute of The Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Narvskaya Street, 15a, Bld., 1, Moscow, 125130, Russia.2 K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management (First Cossack University), Zemlyanoy Val, 73, Moscow, 109004, Russia.


ABSTRACT

The article presents management education as a component of the global education of an individual as part of professional education. The main position here is given to a manager who can function productively in a modified economic context, which is due to socio-economic changes associated with the integration of Russia into the international community, improvement of market mechanisms, optimization and restructuring of Russian professional education, and the reliance on innovative approaches to the training of specialists. Professional training of managers is a structured process aimed at obtaining theoretical knowledge, perfecting of applied skills and abilities, which allow yesterday's students to get used to their work duties and to form a career considering their ambitions and tasks. The solution of the problem, connected with training of specialists in the field of management in modern economic conditions, seems to be achievable in setting up professional training on the formation of professional competence of students, receiving education in the corresponding field. Considering entrepreneurial competencies as a special group in the competence structure reflected in the Federal State Educational Standards for Higher Education is not a sufficient condition to prepare a successful manager. In the context of optimization and reform of the Russian professional school, the issues of training managers, which refer to the training of representatives of this profession in the Soviet Union, in the conditions of the planned economy, are becoming particularly relevant. Modern Russian society, along with state structures, is building public demand for qualified training of competent specialists in the field of management, able to provide a creative approach to the implementation of official duties as subjects of the activity and quickly eliminate the factors that hinder the production process, addressing innovative ways of development of organizations. For this purpose, managers should demonstrate innovative thinking, flexibility, initiative, willingness to disclosure their potential, and ability to develop promising business projects. Professional training of managers in higher education institutions should be brought to a fundamentally different level, which is characterized by a more productive process of building competence of future specialists in this profession. It creates conditions for successful work, which, in turn, is a key prerequisite for the efficiency of the enterprise, sector, region, country, and human society as a whole.

Keywords: criteria for the formation of the professional competence of the manager, innovation economics, professional competence, professional competences, professional training.


 

Introduction 

From the experienced economists and sociologists, in the coming years, society is awaiting a "managerial revolution", which should push the Russian economy to rapid growth and significantly increase the role of individual qualities and professional characteristics of managers in the promotion and prestige of Russia on the international arena. The training of managers of a new generation, economically oriented, flexible, and capable of productive professional activity based on a high degree of professional competence formation is the key mission of the professional school in modern Russia. This determines the relevance of solving the problems related to the training of managers by the corresponding authorities, which is fixed in the corresponding norms in the basic documents: the Law of the Russian Federation "On Education in the Russian Federation", the National Doctrine of Education of the Russian Federation (till 2025), etc [1].

The professional activity of a modern manager, which plays a serious role in the success of the functioning of the enterprise, is manifested in a large number of managerial functions that cannot be separated from the conditions of innovative entrepreneurship when making a reasonable choice, which is based on a serious awareness of economic and business issues, as well as the ability and experience of eliminating nonstandard difficulties (including conflicts). Representing a dynamically evolving part of the educational services market, Russian management education provides various training programs for managers who do not meet the requirements of the modern reality. European and American experience, as a rule, is borrowed rather superficially without studying its content aspects, being, in fact, an ordinary copy of foreign standards of pedagogical activity and ready theoretical knowledge, which has a very conditional connection with real managerial practice [2].

The plans and projects related to training of human resources should be compatible with health [3] and social conditions of a country [4-6]. At the moment, there are many studies of a pedagogical nature related to the training of effective specialists, in particular ― to develop several skills and abilities necessary for them to be employed in a prestigious and well-paid job and achieve high results in the chosen profession. The question of the basic components of professional efficiency of a manager in the research is given a lot of attention; [7-11] psychological development of a manager's personality was studied by E.Yu. Pryazhnikova [12], V.V. Kolchina [13], I.F. Berezhnaya [14], A.E. Kapitonov [15], etc.; the improvement of intellectual and moral qualities is the subject of the studies of E.A. Klimov [16], A.S. Sokolova, M.G. Sergeeva [17], S.N. Chistyakova [18], and others. Other aspects of the manager's professional activity are studied in the works of V.V. Serikov [19], L.G. Semushina, and N.G. Yaroshenko [20], and others. A.Ya. Kibanov [21], V.V. Kolchina [22], M.G. Sergeeva [23], and others studied the main features of character and temperament of a "typical manager". S.A. Sharonova and others [24-27] analyzed the substantial specifics of professional training of specialists. The problems of differentiated innovation training (concerning specific sectors of the economy) have been analyzed by many researchers [28-33].

From the majority of the mentioned authors, the professional training of managers should be understood as a process aimed at structured mastering of fundamental information, improving skills and abilities of a practical character, helping a young employee to adapt to their professional duties and working conditions, as well as plan their career evolution following their goals and needs.

The study of dissertations and other scientific works on the training of competent managers allows us to conclude that there is a lack of reliable organizational and pedagogical technologies, methods, and other factors contributing to the successful formation of professional qualities of future managers during their studies at a higher education institution.

Methods

A significant number of research papers have been published so far on the training of qualified specialists and building their general and special competencies required for good career and professional prospects. From many researchers, the professional training of managers is a structured process aimed at obtaining theoretical knowledge, sharpening applied skills and abilities, which allow yesterday's students to get used to their work duties and build a career considering their ambitions and tasks.

We have used three scientific approaches:

1) systemic, which identifies the personality of a student as a thinking element of reality that is capable of formulating goals, defining tasks, and obtaining the desired result;

2) activity, which creates conditions for the preparation and disclosure of the student's potential through the modeling of the forthcoming labor activity in the educational process;

3) competence, which implies improving the ability to acquire theoretical knowledge in the course of building up competencies related to the received specialty.

The study of the basics of the development of the concept of manager training in the U.S. and the consideration of the evident trends in their training, identified D.N. Sukhinenko, contributed to the identification of several characteristics of the American model of manager training: training of managers at a professional level for the sake of building a successful career; a complex of ideas about the "effective manager"; the attention of business schools to the needs of specific individuals wishing to receive educational services; the presence in the training of managers of two equally important components ― theory and practice.

The specificity of the Russian management education is characterized by the dominance of the traditional paradigm of higher education up to the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, which does not consider the needs of future managers and enterprises that require more managers; lack of differentiation of directions in the preparation of relevant specialists; social demand for the creation of relevant concepts of qualified manager; development and implementation of Russian Master's programs, such as "Master of Business Administration" (MBA); changing the model of education for life to the model of lifelong education; transformation of management education into the main mechanism for planning and "laying out" the career path of the future manager; application of technologies and means oriented to "learning by means of self-analysis and reasonable actions"; projecting the Federal State Educational Standards for Higher Education of the next, 4th, generation, considering the factors of social and economic character, including the market demands and the wishes of employers.

Results

In the Russian Federation, the training of qualified managers in an innovative context will become possible in the process of building a special training to ensure the professional competence of university graduates, which we consider as a complex personal feature that integrates the professional competences correlated with economically important personal characteristics (independence, rationality, flexibility in thinking, entrepreneurial ability, energy, and openness to innovation) and represents the willingness and ability to exercise a professional activity in different areas of the economy through the formation of their career, including the ability to see novelty and justified risk in terms of sustainability and to make informed, promising choices under conditions of uncertainty.

We understand professional competences as a complementary and profound set of knowledge, skills, and abilities, as well as a direct experience of managerial functions and personal responsibility, strengthened during the work in the profession due to the emergence of objective difficulties in the field of management, which a graduate of a higher education institution has to deal with.

Based on the conducted analysis of the competence classifications, developed with the support of different criteria (nature of the tasks performed (general cultural and special); scale, correlation with reality (professional, managerial, internal corporate); structural-functional specificity (differential, threshold); main content (individual-centric, cognitive, social, etc.), we consider it possible to suggest the concept of professional competence of the persons, who receive management education, the core of which is the professional competences of the graduates.

 

Table 1: The structure of the professional competence of future managers

Professional competence

Basic professional competences

Basic economic and managerial knowledge necessary for adaptation to professional activity in market conditions

Key professional competences

The ability to apply economic and management knowledge in practice, the ability to assess new management situations and make effective management decisions in them

Additional professional competences

The ability of creative management behavior, effective behavior on the labor market, continuous professional self-education, etc.

 

During the research, we developed criteria and indicators for the formation of professional competence of future managers (Table 2).

 

 

 

Table 2: Criteria and indicators for the formation of professional competence of future managers

Criteria

Indicators

1.

Motivation and value

The realization of the acquired knowledge in practice and conflict situations; the ability to solve professional tasks creatively; understanding of the necessity to form and develop professional competence.

2.

Knowledge

Knowledge of economic and managerial terms and concepts, the ability to explain their meaning; the ability to correctly analyze and establish causal links of professional problems; the use of knowledge to solve nonstandard problems.

3.

Professionalism

The ability to make rational managerial decisions in risk conditions; professional intuition that works in critical situations; the ability to cope with conflict situations and stress factors.

4.

Personality

Level of self-esteem; the level of criticism in evaluating one's performance, confidence in one's success, self-confidence; the ability to analyze one's behavior in case of conflict.

5.

Creativity

Readiness for innovative professional activity through the perception of innovations; the ability to identify new elements in a well-functioning management process; the ability to find a way out of difficult professional situations.

 

For the effective process of training managers, we used the technology of forming the professional competence of future managers developed by V.V. Kolchina and M.G. Sergeeva [24], which provides for certain stages in the conditions of higher education (Table 3).

 

Table 3: The technology of forming professional competence of future managers

Stages

Characteristics

1.

Value and motivational

The development of an attitude to future professional and managerial activity as a personal and social value; the awareness of students of the importance of forming personal qualities of an economically competent specialist; the formation of the necessity for professional and managerial and personal growth. At this stage, the main emphasis is placed on the development of basic professional competencies for students.

2.

Cognitive

The students master the corresponding volume of economic and managerial knowledge, skills and abilities, and professional management functions of a specialist; the development of the ability to solve managerial tasks at the level of innovation and creativity. At this stage, the main efforts are focused on improving the students' basic professional competences and developing the key professional competences.

3.

Creative and activity

Self-regulation of reasonable managerial behavior and management activities; awareness and evaluation of students' educational and professional management activities; actualization of economically significant personality qualities; formation of abilities to design their professional and managerial development. At this stage, the final formation of basic and key professional competencies takes place, and additional professional competencies are developed.

 

Discussion

In the process of research, M.G. Sergeeva and V.V. Kolchina [24] developed criteria for the formation of professional competence of future managers (Table 4).

 

 

Table 4: Criteria for the formation of professional competence of future managers

Level

Criteria

 

Motivation and value

Knowledge

Professionalism

Personality

Creativity

Diffuse (low)

The professional position of a future specialist in the field of management is characterized by instability, the vector of prospective management activity is at the stage of formation.

The level of knowledge and skills does not allow solving complex management tasks.

The student does not listen to someone else's point of view, does not show a willingness to compromise; there is an inability to manage conflict situations and stress factors; the basics of time management are not learned.

There is no ability to analyze and subsequently assess the behavior of the participants in the management situation and to make a reasonable decision based on available experience.

There is no developed individual style of behavior in search of a way out of difficult managerial situations and the ability to control their actions and the actions of other people in the conditions of innovative entrepreneurship.

Acceptable (medium)

The professional position of the future manager is of a fragmented nature, the vector of prospective management activity is present, but not clearly defined.

Available knowledge is strong, deep, and systematic and meets the requirements of the relevant disciplines. Theoretical provisions are successfully implemented in practice.

As a rule, the student listens to someone else's point of view, makes objections only as a last resort; the ability to manage conflict situations and stress factors manifest itself sporadically; time management technologies are used as part of individual skills.

There is an unclear ability to analyze and further evaluate the behavior of the participants in the management situation and to make a reasonable decision based on the available experience.

There are signs of an individual style of behavior in search of a way out of difficult managerial situations, as well as the ability to control their actions and those of other people in the conditions of innovative entrepreneurship.

Optimal (high)

The professional position of the future manager is characterized by stability and validity, the vector of prospective management activity is clearly defined.

The available knowledge is massive, strong, deep, and systematic and meets the requirements of the relevant disciplines. Theoretical provisions are successfully implemented in practice.

The student listens to someone else's point of view, can compromise with a high level of efficiency; successfully copes with conflict situations and stress factors; time management technologies are fully mastered.

There is an unclear ability to analyze and subsequently assess the behavior of the participants in the management situation and to make a reasonable decision based on the available experience.

An individual style of behavior in search of a way out of difficult managerial situations has been formed and developed, as well as the ability to control one's actions and those of other people in the conditions of innovative entrepreneurship.

 

 

The concluding stage of the experiment included a basic outline of the structure of the professional competence of students obtaining the profession of a manager. The study involved 54 students who were not divided into groups or teams. The obtained results demonstrated the dominance of the low level of the considered competence formation, which allowed us to outline the vectors of the increase of the productivity of the students' professional competence formation with the use of the proposed technology.

The forming stage of the experiment brought together 98 young men and women studying at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Five groups were created: one control group and four experimental groups. In each experimental group, except the fourth, one of the pedagogical conditions was checked:

the first group tested the introduction of a special discipline "Time management" as a catalyst for building professional competence of students;

in the second ― the introduction of a system of analytical and pedagogical methods as a catalyst for building the professional competence of students;

in the third ― the formation of favorable motivational, conceptual, and emotional psychological conditions that promote the development of professional competence of students.

The fourth group verified the combination of all pedagogical factors that influence the construction of professional competence.

The students included in the control group received the training based on the application of standard methods of forming the considered characteristics.

As part of the forming stage of the research, a boundary section was made, which provided us with information about the criteria of the components of the professional competence of students in all formed groups (Table 5).

 

Table 5: Levels of criteria for professional competences of students (forming stage)

 

 

Levels of criteria for components of IEC

 

 

High

Medium

Low

Criteria

Group

Number of students (%)

Number of students (%)

Number of students (%)

Motivation and value

CG

21.1

42.1

36.8

EG

32.7

51.4

15.9

Knowledge

CG

26.3

42.1

31.6

EG

36.2

47.9

15.9

Professionalism

CG

31.6

52.6

15.8

EG

36.2

54.4

9.4

Personality

CG

26.3

47.4

26.3

EG

37.9

51.1

11.0

Creativity

CG

36.8

42.1

21.1

EG

39.1

49.9

11.0

The results presented in Table 5 show that students in all experimental groups of the EG have higher innovative-entrepreneurial competence (IEC) criteria levels overall than the control group. However, the proportion of future managers in the students of the experimental group with a low level of IEC criteria remains quite high (from 11.1 to 15.9%). The worst result is a knowledge criterion and not all students (up to 15.9%) can successfully implement theoretical provisions in practice.

Students have not sufficiently developed practical skills to solve conflict situations, the ability to determine the contradictions, the development of case situations, decisions are made on an intuitive level affecting the technology of making alternative solutions. Future managers have no formed professional intentions, which are a link to the professional competence of future specialists in the management sphere.

The analysis of the components of the professional competence of future managers has shown a significant gap in the quality of professional competence by levels of its formation, and we need to minimize this gap in the further implementation of the developed technology at the forming stage of the experimental research.

The comparative level of professional competence formation of students of the control and experimental groups during the forming stage is shown in Table 6.

 

Table 6: The level of formation of professional competence of students (forming stage)

 

Level of formation of professional competence

Mann-Whitney U-test

Name

 

Optimal (high)

Acceptable (medium)

Diffuse (low)

 

 

Number of students (%)

Number of students (%)

Number of students (%)

Comparison between groups

Value

CG

28.4

45.3

26.4

 

 

EG-1

38.6

45.7

15.7

CG and EG-4

Ucalculation>Utable

EG-2

39.7

48.8

11.5

CG and EG-4

Ucalculation>Utable

EG-3

32.3

51.1

16.6

CG and EG-4

Ucalculation>Utable

EG-4

43.2

49.7

7.1

CG and EG-4

Ucalculation>Utable

 

As we can see, the level of formed professional competence of students in the experimental group is higher than in the control group. Thus, the number of students with a high level of IEC formation in EG-4 increased by 14.8% compared to CG, and those having an average level ― by 4.4%.

A comparison of the IEC formation using the Mann-Whitney U-test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between CG and experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 at the intermediate section of the formation stage. This suggests that the effect of using a single pedagogical condition is insufficient. Only EG-4 has significant differences in comparison with CG, which demonstrates the positive effect of using a set of pedagogical conditions of IEC formation. The students of EG-4 have a low level of formation of innovative-entrepreneurial competence of students decreased by 19.3%.

The results of the forming stage showed that the application of one of the pedagogical conditions is not effective enough in forming the IEC, therefore, further in the final experiment in experimental groups we began to use a set of pedagogical conditions.

The final stage of the experiment was also conducted at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Forty students took part in the experiment and were divided into control (21 people) and experimental (19 people) groups.

The comparative data on levels of the criteria of professional competence formation at the control stage are presented in Table 7.

 

Table 7: Levels of criteria for the professional competence of students (control stage)

 

 

Levels of criteria for professional competence

 

Names of

 criteria

Group

Optimal (high)

Acceptable (medium)

Diffuse (low)

Mann-Whitney

U-test

 

 

Number of students (%)

Number of students (%)

Number of students (%)

 

Motivation and value

CG

28.6

47.6

23.8

Ucalculation>Utable

EG

47.4

52.6

Knowledge

CG

28.5

42.9

28.5

Ucalculation>Utable

EG

36.8

57.9

5.3

Professionalism

CG

28.5

52.4

19.0

Ucalculation>Utable

EG

42.1

57.9

Personality

CG

33.3

52.4

14.3

Ucalculation>Utable

EG

47.4

47.4

5.3

Creativity

CG

28.5

52.4

19.0

Ucalculation>Utable

EG

47.4

52.6

 

As can be seen from the results of the table, the level of all criteria in the EG has significantly improved compared to the control group. For all criteria of PC formation, the calculated Mann-Whitney U-test is smaller than the tabular one, which shows statistically significant differences between the mean values in the EG and CG.

The dynamics of change in the formation of the innovative-entrepreneurial competence of students are presented in Table 8 and Figure 1.

 

Table 8: The dynamics of change in the formation of professional competence of future managers (%)

Levels of PC formation

Concluding stage

Forming stage

Final stage

 

 

EG-4

CG

EG

CG

Diffuse (low)

28.6

7.1

26.4

23.1

Acceptable (medium)

44.9

49.7

45.3

53.7

48.5

Optimal (high)

26.5

43.2

28.4

46.3

28.6

The comparison of PC formation values at the final stage between EG and CG using Mann-Whitney U-test shows the statistical significance of differences between these two samples:

 

Ucalculation<Utable, where Ucalculation=172, Utable=211

 

At the concluding stage of the experiment, a significant number of students had a low level of IEC of students (up to 28.6%). The low level of IEC formation in CG at the forming stage of the experiment was also quite high (up to 26.4%). The changes in comparison with the concluding stage were 2.2%, which is within the statistical error for our sample. As a result of the application of the proposed technology at the final stage of the experiment, there were no students with a low level of IEC formation in the experimental group (Fig. 1).

Figure 1: The dynamics of change in IEC formation of students

 

Thus, during the experimental work, we established that the process of formation of professional competence of future managers will be the most effective in the implementation of the developed technology and pedagogical conditions aimed at preparing a competitive professional manager, who is in demand in the management-labor market.

Conclusion

In the context of optimization and reform of the Russian professional school, the issues of training managers, which refer to the training of representatives of this profession in the Soviet Union, in the conditions of the command economy, are becoming particularly relevant. The search for solutions to this problem has prompted the scientific community to study the experience of management training in the USA, which for decades has been occupying leading positions in this field and awarding a prestigious, internationally respected academic degree of MBA. The solution to the problem associated with the training of specialists in the field of management in the modern economic conditions seems feasible in the establishment of professional training to build professional competence of students. We interpret it as a complex professional characteristic of a personality that integrates basic, special, and additional innovative-entrepreneurial competences.

The pedagogical prerequisites for building the professional competence of students in their respective specialties are determined by the essence and specific requirements of current federal state educational standards for higher education.

The results of the verification of the process of building professional competence of students demonstrate the success of the proposed technology and pedagogical prerequisites conducive to the training of practical management specialists who correspond to the needs of employers and are in high demand in the labor market.

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