Fluoride content in various sources of drinking water in Chennai
Fluoride is one of the critical chemical parameters, which influences the quality of groundwater. Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many states of India. Fluoride is essential for the development of tooth enamel, dentin, and the bones. Fluoride in drinking water is of great benefit to the vulnerable society in terms of prevention and control of dental caries. Whatever may be the type of water being consumed, it is necessary to assess the fluoride level in various sources of water. The aim is to assess the fluoride level in various sources of drinking water in Chennai. Chennai city is divided into north, south, and central, and there are about 15 zones in Chennai. Five zones of Chennai were selected. All drinking water samples about 200 ml were collected in polyethylene bottles with airtight lids. About 22 water samples from groundwater and tap water were collected from selected zones of Chennai. Leading brands of bottled water were selected. The labels of the bottled water were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered, and water samples were sent for fluoride content analysis. Fluoride content was analyzed using SPADNS colorimetric method. Fluoride content in open well was found to be higher in zone 11 (0.69 mg/L), and it is lower in zone 6 (0.46 mg/L). Fluoride content in metro water was found to be higher in zone 11 (0.48 mg/L). pH value was found to be higher in zone 5 (7.70) compared to other zones. Fluoride content in bore water was found to be higher in zone 5 (0.89 mg/L), and it was lower in zones 10 and 11 (0.56 mg/L). The pH value was found to be higher in zone 10 (8.23) and lower in zone 5 (7.12). Fluoride content was found to be higher in Bisleri bottled water (0.06), whereas Aqua firm and Aqua fina contain below the detection level of fluoride content in water. The results obtained from the present study clearly state that the fluoride concentration was suboptimal in both community water supply and bottled drinking water sold in Chennai. Various alternatives for topical as well as systemic fluorides should be suggested for the population in this city to have better dental health.
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